Carl Milofsky, PhD

Professor of Sociology

Department of Sociology and Anthropology

Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, USA

Professional Biography

Carl Milofsky received his PhD from the University of California-Berkeley in Sociology.  His primary training and interests are in the area of organizational theory and sociological theory generally.  He did post-doctoral research in sociology and education at the University of Chicago.  He then taught in the Institution for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University where he was an original member of the Program on Nonprofit Organizations when it was founded in 1978.  He served as editor of the Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly from 1990-1996.  He has been on the board of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA).  He currently is Managing Editor for the Voluntary Sector Review

Research Interests

Carl Milofsky does research on the sociology of community, medical sociology, the sociology of education, and nonprofit organizational studies. He has particular research specializations in the sociology of associations, in the structure of community organizations, and in small nonprofit organizations. He has done research on civil society and on civil society in Ethiopia. He also studies the sociology of social welfare, especially as it applies to communities. He has done research on the organization of hospital emergency rooms, on volunteer fire departments, and factors that affect health in communities. Currently he teaches Inside/Out courses in the local prisons. He does research on inmate identity and the organizational structure of prisons, and on prisoner re-entry into society.

Teaching Interests

Carl Milofsky teaches medical sociology.  He takes Bucknell students into the local state prison where he teaches courses on identity and the organizational structure of prisons.  He often teaches courses on rural communities and involves students as field observers in a variety of local social service organizations.  He also was a founder of the Coal
Region Field Station where Bucknell partners with local communities and by bringing classes into communities helps to create revitalization projects.

Book-Length Publications

  • Towards an Institutional Theory of Community and Community Associations. A Review. Voluntaristics Review.  London: Brill, 2019.
  • Handbook of Community Movements and Local Organizations in the 21Century, 2nd. Edition, edited jointly with Ram Cnaan. Springer, 2018.
  • Co-editor, with Judith Weisinger and Ramon Borges-Mendes, Special Issue on Diversity, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 2016.
  • Smallville. The Institutionalization of Community in Twenty-First Century America. University Presses of New England, 2008.
  • Pragmatic Liberalism, Constructing Civil Society. with Albert Hunter. Palgrave/MacMillan, 2007.
  • Special Issue, Nonprofit Management and Leadership, co-edited with Joyce Rothschild, “Values, Passion and Trust in the Not-for-Profit Sector”, v. 17 #2, Winter, 2006.
  • Handbook of Community Movements and Local Organizations, edited jointly with Ram Cnaan. Springer, 2006.
  • Testers and Testing. The Sociology of School Psychology. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. 1989.
  • Editor, Community Chest, by John Seeley,  et al. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1989.
  • Editor, Community Organizations: Studies in Resource Mobilization and Exchange. NY: Oxford University Press, 1988.
  • Special Education. A Sociological Study of California Programs. (dissertation) New York: Praeger, 1976.

Important Articles

  • “Mediating Structures: Their Organization in Civil Society.”  With Margaret Harris; Nonprofit Policy Forum, 2019.
  • “The Collapse of Intermediate Structures?” With Margaret Harris, City and Community 16:2, 2017.
  • Bucknell University Northern Ireland Project; A Digital Video Archive with an online course: Link 1, Link 2. 2016.
  • “Rural Service Learning as Participatory Action Research: Lessons from Central Pennsylvania.” Brandn Green, Heather Feldhaus, Ben Marsh, and Carl Milofsky. Pp. 109-120 in R. Stoecker, N. Holton, and C. Ganzert (eds.), The Landscape of Rural Service Learning and What It Teaches Us All. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2017.
  • “Re-building Coal Country: A Church/University Partnership”. With Brandn Green,Religions 7 (75): 1-13, 2016. Link
  • “Diversity in the Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector.” With Judith Weisinger and Ramon Borges-Mendez.  Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 45: 3S-27S, 2016.
  • “Chaining and Virtual Organization in a Public Sociological Project: The Brown Ridge School District Health Needs Assessment becomes the Central Susquehanna Affordable Care Act Project.”  With Brandn Green. Applied Sociology. 9 (2):170-181, 2015.
  • “Implementing the Affordable Care Act in Central Pennsylvania,“ The Journal of Rural Health, 00(2014): 1-3. Brandn Green, Kristal Jones, and Carl Milofsky. 2014.
  • “Stable Anarchy and the Persistence of Civil Society Organizations in Ethiopia.” With Berhanu Nega.  Spanda Journal 4 (1):41-52, 2013.
  • “Understanding the Role of Non-Aligned Civil Society in Peace-Building in Northern Ireland: Towards a Fresh Approach.” with Nicholas Acheson and Maurice StringerBuilding Peace in Northern Ireland, Liverpool University Press, 2011.
  • “Ethiopia’s Anti-NGO Law and its Consequences for Economic Development”, co-authored with Berhanu Nega, Community Development Journal 46 (S2): ii33–ii48 (April), 2011.
  • “Derry Exceptionalism and an Organic Model of Sustained Dialog.”  Ch. 8, pp 167-185.  With Nicholas Acheson, in Resolving Community Conflicts and Problems: Public Deliberation and Sustained Dialogue ED. by Roger A. Lohmann and Jon van Van Til  Columbia University Press, 2011.
  • “Peace Building and Participation in Northern Ireland: Local Social Movements and the Policy Process since the ‘Good Friday’ Agreement.”  With Nicholas Acheson. Ethnopolitics 7 (1): 63-80, 2008.
  • “The Catalyst Process;  What Academics Provide to Practitioners”, Nonprofit Management and Leadership 16 (4): 467-480, 2006.
  • “The Sociology of Emergency Medicine”, with Arno Vosk. Three part article, Emergency Medicine News 24 (2): 3; 24 (3): 4; 24(4): 3, 2002.
  • “Neighborhood based organizations: A market Analogy”,  Ch 16, pp 277-295 in The Nonprofit Sector. A Research Handbook, W.W.Powell (ed.), Yale University Press.